Instructions to Authors

The Bahrain Medical Bulletin is an international, independent, peer-reviewed journal published by the Editorial Board of the Bahrain Medical Bulletin. Authors are invited to submit articles in biomedical, clinical and other health-related sciences.

Article Categories: BMB publishes editorials, originals, review articles, case reports, letters to the editor, family physician corner, medical quiz, talents in medicine, medical news and announcements. Authors are encouraged to submit papers under other categories, such as systematic meta-analytical reviews, clinical trials, personal views, historical proceedings, commentaries, clinical notes, medical education, student corner and nurse�s corner. Original articles should provide in-depth, clinical or basic science investigations aiming to change clinical practice or the understanding of disease process while case reports should be unique, highly relevant and educationally valuable. Reviews are usually by invitation; however, those interested are welcomed.

Manuscript Preparation: Authors are encouraged to adhere to the �Instructions to Authors� which must be read in conjunction with the supplementary and explanatory notes contained in the Mission and Scope, Editorial and Publishing Policies and Agreements/Disclosure Sections of the Bulletin. Authors are advised to read the guidelines and recommendations of the following publications:

1. The previous and the current issues of Bahrain Medical Bulletin (

 Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted for Biomedical Journals published by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (

 Standards for the Reporting of Diagnosis Accuracy Studies (STARD) (

 Authors are advised to use Chambers 20th Century Dictionary and Dorland�s Medical Dictionary.

Use accepted international abbreviation and state all measurements in SI metric units. Use generic drugs and equipment names and assign when possible the manufacturer�s name and location. A manuscript should be divided into sections, each of which should be started on a new page. The sequence of headings should be as follows: title page, abstract, introduction, method, result, discussion, conclusion, authorship information, disclosure, references, tables, figures, captions and legends for illustrations. Pages should be numbered consecutively including the title page. The Bulletin does not publish an �Acknowledgment� section.

Title Page:
This must include: *Title of the article *Correct full name/s of all authors and the two highest academic degrees *Name of the institution at the time authors did the study and to which the work is credited *Current affiliation and address of each author, address, e-mail, telephone and fax numbers of corresponding author *Short running title *Previous presentation of the paper in scientific meetings *Information about grant and sponsorship *Conflict of interest *Informed consent. Case report should preferably be limited to 4 authors.

This is required for all manuscripts except editorial and letter to the editor. It should not be more than 250 words. The abstract should be factual and comprehensive, containing the essence of all sections of the paper. The abstract of the original article should only have a structured format containing the following headings: objective, design, setting, method, result and conclusion. It should not contain references.

Briefly describes the problem. State the purpose of the study and summarize previously related publication and deficiency of the knowledge. Mention the aim of the study at the end of the introduction.

Describe sampling procedure, design, equipments, method of the study, and statistical analysis in sufficient details to allow reproduction by other researchers. Mention inclusion/exclusion criteria.

Present result in a logical sequence. Avoid repetitions between text and illustrations. Numbers should match all sections of the paper. Use uniform units of measurement.

Summarize key findings and their implications, interpretations and limitations. Relate observations to relevant study and present status of knowledge. Do not repeat data from introduction or findings from the results section unless warranted. Avoid lengthy literature review. Unqualified statements must be supported by references. Affirm the �message� of the paper in the final paragraph.

Recapitulate the main findings and their interpretations affirming clearly the �message� of the paper. Explain gaps and how future work could continue. Recommend further studies which support the main findings or explain gaps.

Disclosure Section:
Complete this section in accordance with relevant information found in the Editorial Policies and Agreement Disclosure Forms from our website (
There are three main components of this section, authors� names should be listed in the same sequence as they appear in the Title Page: (1) Authorship Contribution: Their specific contribution to the study and the writing of the manuscript. (2) Disclosure of Competing Interest: Their competing interests (financial or otherwise) related to the study during the 36 months prior to the submission of the manuscript. (3) Disclosure of Sponsorship: List the names of organizations which supported/funded the research study, including grant number, and their role in the design and conduct, collection, analysis, and interpretation of data or writing or approval of the manuscript.

Authors are responsible for the accuracy, completeness, and format of their references. Include only retrievable and up-to-date bibliography directly related to the study. Number references consecutively in the order of their appearance in the text. Identify references in text, tables, and legends by Arabic numerals. Unpublished and personal observations are not accepted. Avoid citing conference papers unless published. Journal titles abbreviations should follow the format of Cumulative Index Medicus. In the list of references, include only the names of first three authors followed by et al if more than three. Examples of correct forms of references are:

Journal reference:
Al-Bahrani A, Alyousif H, Mustafa B, et al. A Possible Role of Chlamydia Pneumonia in Vaso-Occlusive Crisis in Sickle Cell Disease. Bahrain Med Bull 2010; 32(3): 111-4.

Book reference: Katz MJ. From Research to Manuscript: A Guide to Scientific Writing. 2nd ed. USA: Springer, 2009.

Chapter reference:
Elder DE, Elenitsas R, Murphy GF, et al. Benign Pigmented Lesions and Malignant Melanoma. In: Elder DE, Elenitsas R, Johnson BL, et al. eds. Lever�s Histopathology of the Skin. 9th Ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2009: 699-789.

Tables must be simple, identifying clear parameters, units of measurements and statistical measures. Tables must contain at least two columns. Each table should be typed on a separate page double spaced including headings. Tables should be numbered in Arabic numerals to correspond with the same number in the text. Include explanatory data in the footnotes. Avoid repeating data between tables and charts. Pie charts and bar graphs should be kept to the minimum since their data can be included in the text.

Data contained in the tables and illustrations should not be duplicated in the text. Manuscripts containing photographs of a person, the authors must submit legal written release from the person or guardian. Covering the eyes is not adequate to conceal the identity. Submit copyright permissions if any of the illustrations were published previously. If authorship does not include a pathologist or radiologist, all related comments appearing in the text and illustrations are reviewed by these specialists. The Bahrain Medical Bulletin publishes tables and illustrations in black and white only; authors must meet the cost of USD 60/page for color productions. Printing colored productions into black and white format affects the quality of the illustrations. If the authors do not opt for colored prints, they must supply high contrast sharp black and white production noting that markings/shading of the parameter in the tables, charts, etc. should be distinctly different. Failure to meet any of these options will result in rejection of the paper submitted.

Manuscript Submission:
Authors are required to complete and sign six Agreements/Disclosure Forms: Transfer of Copyright Agreement, Certificate of Exclusive Submission, Authorship Disclosure, Financial Interest Disclosure, Sponsorship Disclosure and Compliance with Institutional Review Board or similar authorities. These forms can be downloaded and printed from our website All manuscripts must be submitted with proof from reliable source that there is no plagiarism.

Many manuscripts are rejected because of improper language. If you do not have a good command of English, please use the following site to improve the language of your manuscript.

You can submit your manuscript to:

For editorial communications: Email:

Submit the manuscript with the following:

1) Covering letter indicating the category under which authors wish the article to be considered for and also outlining briefly the aims, methods, results, and main message of the paper.

2) The Bulletin accepts and gives priority to manuscripts submitted by email. Soft copy of the manuscript (Microsoft word) and agreement/disclosure forms.

Note: Bahrain Medical Bulletin levies an article-processing charge of $1249 (USD) for each article accepted for publication to cover the publication expenses - including the cost of peer review management, journal production, online hosting and archiving.

We do not supply free reprints. Authors who wish to receive reprints of the published articles should buy a minimum of 100 copies (USD 500) by contacting